Bone Cement is used for the purpose of implant fixation and various other procedures in orthopedic surgery. Bone Cement is made up of Plexiglass, or PMMA (Polymethyl Methacrylate). PMMA has excellent compatibility with human tissue and is hence used for anchorage. Bone cement usually consists of a powder and a liquid, which are mixed together before use. The use of bone cement is indicated for arthroplastic procedures, fixation of pathological fractures, revision of arthroplasty etc.
The polymerization process of Bone Cement after mixing of the liquid component and the dry component goes through four phases –
• Mixing – This phase begins when the dry components are mixed with the wet components. This phase is complete when the mixture turns homogenous. • Waiting – During this phase the mixture is allowed to rest which increases it’s viscosity. • Working - During this phase of the polymerization the mixture is not sticky and the surgeon can monitor and apply the cement. • Hardening- The hardening phase or the setting period is the final phase of polymerization of the bone cement. During this phase the bone cement cures to a hard consistency.
Types of Bone Cement
1. Low Viscosity Bone Cement – These cements have a very long waiting phase and remain in a runny state for longer period of time. 2. Medium Viscosity Bone Cement – These cements are like dual phase cements as they can act like both low viscosity and high viscosity cements. Medium Viscosity cements offer versatility and are used for a wide range of procedures. 3. High Viscosity Cements – These bone cements do not have a runny phase. The mixture is to be used immediately after mixing and working time has to be closely monitored.
The viscosity of the bone cement determines ease of handling as well as the cement’s ability to penetrate through the pores of bone and achieve fixation. There are many trusted brands of bone cement in India. Depuy Bone Cement, Simplex P Bone Cement, and Simplex High Velocity Bone Cement are some of the most trusted bone cement in India.
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