Pathology is an area of medical science that is chiefly concerned with the cause, origin and nature of disease. Pathologists, specialists of the science, examine samples of tissues, organs, bodily fluids and conduct autopsies in order to study and diagnose disease. General pathology are analyses known clinical abnormalities that are precursors or indicators for both infectious and non-infectious diseases. The two major sub-specialties within the branch of pathology are anatomical pathology and clinical pathology.While anatomical pathology studies surgical specimens removed from the body or conducts post mortem examinations, clinical pathology involves laboratory analysis of body fluids and tissues for blood cell counts, coagulation studies, urinalysis, blood glucose level determinations and throat cultures. Anatomical pathology is further classified into sub specialities like surgical pathology, histopathology, cytopathology, forensic pathology and dermatopathology. Some main sub-specialities of clinical pathology include chemical pathology, Immunology or immunopathology and haematology. Many major advances have been made by pathologists, for example in the successful treatment of cancer, ensuring safe blood transfusions, developing vaccines against infectious diseases and the treatment of inherited conditions.
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