Pregnancy Test Kits are used to determine pregnancy by detecting the Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hcg). Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin is produced by the placenta and is detectable in urine during early pregnancy.
It could be as early as about one week after the implantation and the level of hcg continues to rise over the first trimester. The amount of hcg levels present in the urine is directly proportional to the length of pregnancy. The Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin is only present in detectable quantities in pregnant women and hence this urine test comes positive only if an embryo has been implanted in the endometrium.
The working principle of Pregnancy test kits is rapid chromatographic immunoassay for qualitative detection of hcg subunits in the sample. Two lines are used to determine the pregnancy test results. The test kit also works in the case of an Ectopic pregnancy as these pregnancies do produce hcg which would result in the detection of the pregnancy.
To determine positive results, the specimen reacts with the specific antibody- hcg which forms a coloured line at the test region. Many doctors believe that a urine tests for pregnancy can be as accurate as a blood pregnancy test if performed according to the instructions. The major advantage of urine test is that the test detects pregnancy and confirms pregnancy at home with great accuracy.
HOW TO USE
1. The testing device must be removed from the packaging.
2. The test strip is immersed in urine collected in a clean specimen container with the arrow end pointing towards the specimen to be tested. The pregnancy tests work best when taken in the morning as the hcg concentration is easily detectable in the sample. If the test kit has a window for urine, put the number of drops of urine mentioned on the packet in the window with a dropper. Do not flood the collection window with more urine than the packet has mentioned.
3. Take out the strip after 10 seconds (or the time mentioned) from the specimen and let the test strip dry on a clean, flat and non-absorbable surface.
4. Read the test results after the time mentioned on the package. Read the results within the time limit mentioned as reading a test result after prolonged time may produce false results.
5. Presence of two coloured bands indicates a positive result and presence of one coloured band indicates a negative result. In case of appearance of no lines, the test is considered invalid and has to be performed again with a new kit.
You might get negative test results if the pregnancy is being tested too early. If a pregnancy is suspected, repeat the test again in a week. If there is a faint positive line on the pregnancy test, it is still considered a positive and the test is recommended to be performed again in a few days.
It is recommended to take the pregnancy test a week from the day of your missed period for the most accurate results. If the pregnancy test is positive, get in touch with your obstetrician and gynaecologist to further evaluate the pregnancy and take blood tests and ultrasound. Rarely, does a urine pregnancy test give a false positive or a false negative due to several factors such as expired test, test not taken according to the instructions or test taken too early. It is important to check the expiration date on your pregnancy test kit.
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